2 ?o Price lists for products specific to advertising at a certain price – ITT (Grainger – Son v Gough). List of wine merchants? Stocks were limited, not unlimited. o 2 exceptions in which the ad – offer o (1) clearly – certain announcements of manufacturers with unlimited deliveries (Grainger v Gough; Partridge v Crittenden obiter Lord Parker CJ) o (2) unilateral offers, Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co: an offer because: (2) as acceptance —war (2) clear and specific formulations (Storer/MCC, with the intention of being bound); Communication (3) intention because they deposited money (PS1000) to pay for the benefit. o So for the ad – offer, must be: (1) unilateral (prescription of an act to make acceptance); (2) clear – sure; (3) show the intention to be bound. o Lefkowitz vs. Great Minneapolis Surplus Store (clearly prescribed act – first customer arriving at 9 a.m. at the store) o Leonard v Pepsico. Notice of tender o A trading mechanism in which a party (usually a company) wishes to acquire an important item or service. The applicant invites interested parties interested in the provision of goods or services. o In general – ITT, an invitation to interested parties to submit offers. o General – ITT (Spencer v Harding).
The offer (shipped roundly, stock offered for sale by tender)? C passed on the highest offer, D would not accept it. Hero: Tender – ITT, the offers were offers that the D`es could accept/reject. o EXCEPTION—If the tender is expressly obliged to accept the highest or lowest bed, then – a one-sided offer: told Spencer, if in Spencer says round “we are committed to selling to the highest bidder”. Confirmed in Harvela investments against Royal Trust Co of Canada). Is a one-sided bid, made by the delivery of a prescribed action (with the highest bid); In fact, two unilateral contracts (Lord Diplock) were created. o Tenders/tenders may give rise to a contractual obligation to review duly submitted bids (Blackpool v Blackpool)? this obligation arises from the facts, as (i) the Commission`s request has been addressed to a number of parties; (ii) there were specific and absolute conditions for the bid and the date of the bids? properly review all bids submitted. Auctions In general, price offers or price lists alone are not enough to make bids.  On the contrary, a legally enforceable contract arises only when an order is placed “in accordance with the proposed conditions.”  Therefore, the order is considered an offer. In most cases, the transaction is not completed until the contract is signed.
 So if you see a price on an e-commerce site, it`s not yet an offer. If you order the product, make an offer that the retailer can accept or refuse (z.B. if the product is not in stock or if the price has increased). If the distributor confirms your order, it is an acceptance and a binding agreement. o Death of the bidder: the offer is extinguished and the personal representatives of the bidder cannot be accepted on behalf of the deceased Reynolds against Atherton, the offer and acceptance being necessarily linked, in California (United States), the offer and acceptance are analyzed together as sub-elements of a single element known as the agreement of the parties or as mutual consent.  The formation of a unilateral contract can be proven in the English case of Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Co.  To ensure the efficacy of the smokeball product, the company offered a 100-pound reward to anyone who used the product and contracted the flu.